Shifting from gasoline to E85 (85% ethanol fuel, 15% gasoline) may be bad both for your health and air quality.
In the article Effects of Ethanol (E85) versus Gasoline Vehicles on Cancer and Mortality in the United States just published on the Journal Environmental Science and Technology Mark Jacobson reports discusses the potential cancer risk and ozone-related health consequences of a large-scale conversion from gasoline to ethanol.
He finds that
‘E85 (85% ethanol fuel, 15% gasoline) may increase ozone-related mortality, hospitalization, and asthma by about 9% in Los Angeles and 4% in the United States as a whole relative to 100% gasoline. Ozone increases in Los Angeles and the northeast were partially offset by decreases in the southeast. E85 also increased peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the U.S. but was estimated to cause little change in cancer risk. Due to its ozone effects, future E85 may be a greater overall public health risk than gasoline. However, because of the uncertainty in future emission regulations, it can be concluded with confidence only that E85 is unlikely to improve air quality over future gasoline vehicles. Unburned ethanol emissions from E85 may result in a global-scale source of acetaldehyde larger than that of direct emission.‘
Science Friday 20 April 2007 features an interview with Jakobson.
On ethanol see also Aplia econ-blog post on the impact of the increase of US corn based ethanol production on tortillas’ prices in Mexico.
The Aplia econ-blog has a post on congestion charges.
Susan Athey was awarded the John Bates Clark medal this year thus becoming the first female economist to win the award.
The John Bates Clark medal is awarded every two years to the most promising US economist under 40 by the American Economic Association. More information.
… it’s not easy. On this sunny Saturday afternoon, while at the task of writing mine for my teaching portfolio, I stumbled on the very helpful Writing a Teaching Philosophy by the Iowa State University Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching.
I also found useful the documents by the Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning at Harvard University on Creating a Teaching Portfolio, Components of a Teaching Portfolio, Teaching-Related Questions for Academic Job Interviews, and Documenting Student Evaluations for the Teaching Portfolio.
Finally I enjoyed reading Ohio State University’s tips on Developing a Teaching Portfolio.
Hopefully these documents will be useful to you too.
The Department of Philosophy of the University of Helsinki organizes a very interesting seminar on the horizontal interactions between social sciences as well as on the relationship between social sciences and cognitive and life sciences.
The theme for the next session 19 April will be Rational Choice and Political Science and Beyond. Session III 26 April will discuss the Cognitive Foundations of Social Science and session IV 3 May Economics Imperialism and Explanatory Unification.
If you wish to participate please contact the instructor Uskali Mäki, Academy Professor, Academy of Finland uskali.maki at helsinki.fi
The seminar meets Thursdays 13 – 16 at the Department of Philosophy, Siltavuorenpenger 20A, Room 334d.